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Windham County Connecticut
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868. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: Philadelphia, July 21. No circumstance has added more distress to the present calamity, than the disagreement of the physicians about the disease. They at first differed as to the mode of cure; but now it appears they do not yet agree, in determining what is, and what is not the yellow fever.

869. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: Extract of a letter from a gentleman in Philadelphia, to his friend in this city, dated the 19th of Sept. “Ever since our return from New-York, our eyes, our ears, and our hearts have been effected. It is supposed, that on an average, from 30 to 70 have died a day. Thousands of our inhabitants have fled. It is but just to mention, that owning to the exertions, under God, of the undefatigable Dr. Ruth, and a specifick now used, recommended by him, many of the infected recover. The Doctor is highly deserving of the united thanks of his distressed fellow citizens, for his zeal, his vigilance, and his humanity, at a time when some of his medical brethren, have, thro’ fear,
deserted the field!”

870. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: September 26. Very disagreeable accounts are received of the Indians in that quarter. Since the first of August, a
large number of the inhabitants have been killed and wounded, and others taken and treated with that inhumanity prevalent only among the savages of that country. Among the unfortunate, was Jonathan Cunningham, who was wounded in his father’s field, near M’Teat’s station, 19 miles from Knoxville, by a party of 20 Indians; notwithstanding he was wounded in three places, and scalped, he survived upwards of seven hours, during which time he perfectly retained his senses.

871. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: To George Washington, President of the United States. The memorial and Petition of the Convention of Mero District, (Territory South of the Ohio) We, your memorialists, being regularly chosen and fully authorized by the citizens of Mero, to represent the situation of our country, address you, sir, amidst dangers which threaten our total dissolution, without your aid. We omit to speak of the outrages this frontier has suffered from the insolence and barbarity of the Creeks and Cherokees ever since the first establishment of our settlement of Cumberland. We request only to call your attention to the list of the killed and wounded since the treaty of Holston, amounting to one hundred and seventeen, which we enclose. This list proves how slender a tie, upon these barbarous people are treaties, without the restraint of coercion and fear. The loss of our property we name not. What succour has been granted, though liberal, each day’s melancholy experience shews to be inadequate to the protection of our lives. The despair of our fellow citizens causes a daily increase of population to the Spanish government. Long experience emboldens us humbly to suggest, that while our hands are tied, and the enemy permitted to proceed without retaliation, we cannot flatter ourselves with any bounds to our calamities. How far it may, in general, be expedient to reconcile this enemy with presents and rewards, is not for us to decide; but we cannot help deploring, that, with respect to this country, such treaties appear to have an evil tendency. That our sufferings proceed not from any known provocation on our side, we appeal to the Father of truth and mercy; Therefore, in full confidence of humanity and justice, we pray, that we may be further assisted to support this frontier, which in our present situation is found to be in the utmost danger. We further petition, that to awe our enemies, this government may be permitted to retaliate upon the invaders and aggressors, or to demand them from their towns, if they pursue these insufferable violences; or, in case they refuse to deliver them up, that we may have the sanction of public authority to do ourselves justice; for we know not, in our present situation, to what despair the people may be driven. David Wilson, Chairman. Thomas Donnel, Clerk.

872. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: Windham, October 5. We hear from New-Jersey, that the horses, in many parts of that state, die of a distemper called the blind staggers. One of the farmers there has lost upwards of 400(l) in horses.

873. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: Died
In New-Haven on the 22d instant, in the 67th year of his age, Col. Jonathan Fitch, sheriff of the county, and collector of the port and distract of New-Haven. He was son of Thomas Fitch, Esquire, once governor of the colony. In Virginia, of the yellow fever, Capt. John Fitch Wight, of Poquetannock, aged 33 years.

874. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: New Goods. Timothy Warren, Respectfully informs his friends and the public, that he has just received a large
and well chosen assortment of Dry Goods, adapted to the present and approaching season, which being selected from the latest arrivals from
Europe, he flatters himself will be sold on as low terms for Cash as can be purchased at any Store in the State. He has also for sale, The best
Coniac Brancy, Geneva; Lisbon and Teneriffe Wines; Genuine Spirits, and Rum; Molasses, Loaf and Brown Sugars; Hyson, Souchong and Bohea Teas; Chocolate, Coffee, Nutmegs, Cinnamon, Cloves, Alspice, Pepper, Ginger, Rice; Cotton Wool, York Biscuit, Raisins, Best French Indigo, Maxwell’s Scotch Snuff, Crockery and Glass Ware; 6 by 8 and 7 by 9 Window Glass, German Steel, &c. &c. Wanted, Check Flannel, Geese Feathers, Bees’-Wax, Old Pewter and Brass; for which a generous price will be allowed. Windham, 2d Oct. 1793.

875. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: An elegant Sulkey and Harness, to be sold in Windham. Enquire of the Pringer. October 2, 1793.

876. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: Stolen from the subscriber, the 25th instant, a new Scythe and tackling. Any person that will return it to the
subscriber, shall be well rewarded. Andrew Jackson.

877. WH Sat Oct. 5, 1793: The person who left a Great Coat at a house in this town on Tuesday last, may have information of it, by enquiring
of the printer.

878. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: Worcester, September 26. Last week, before the Hon. Supreme Judicial Court, then sitting in this town, Samuel Frost was indicted by the Grand Jury, for the murder of Capt. Elisha Allen [or Ailen?], of Princeton. On his arraignment at the bar, he pleaded guilty. The Court, however, willing that he should have a trial by jury, did not at first record his plea; but ordered him to be remanded, in order that he might have time for reconsideration, and an opportunity to retract. But on being called a second time to the bar, he still persisted in his plea; and the Court proceeded to the examination of witnesses, in order that they might be able to determine whether any thing could appear, which would render it proper for them to recommend him to the Supreme Executive, as an object of the mercy. The subject of inquiry was, whether he was a person of sufficient understanding to be properly guilty of the crime alleged against him. On supposition that he was not, he had been formerly acquitted, when brought to the same bar for the murder of his own father. But after a candid and impartial examination, the Hon. Court pronounced it a frivolous pretence; and proceeded to award against him the sentence of death, without offering the smallest encouragement of using any influence to obtain his pardon. The solemn sentence he received with an apparent hardened insensibility and stupid indifference, which prove him destitute of every social principle, and of all proper sense of the enormity of the crime, for which he must shortly suffer an ignominious death.

879. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: Died.
At Philadelphia, much lamented, Mr. Andrew Adgate, formerly of Norwich.
At Norwich, Mrs. ____ Witter, consort of Mr. Jacob Witter.

880. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: New and Cheap Goods. Frederick Stanley, has now received from New York an assortment of Dry Goods, suited to the present and approaching season, consisting of a variety of articles, both useful and ornamental, many of which were bought at vendue, and will be afforded at reduced prices, indeed, for ready pay. Also, Loaf and Brown Sugars, Sequin and Bohea Teas, Wines, Brandy and Rum of the best quality, and many other articles in the Grocery line. Said Stanley is under the necessity in earnestly request those indebted to him, not to let slip the favourable opportunity the present season presents, of making full payment, that he may be enabled to fulfil his engagements to others. Butter, Cheese, check’d Flannel, Tow-Cloth, Geese Feathers, and almost every kind of Produce, taken in payment, either for Debts or Goods. Windham, October 11, 1793.

881. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: Miner Smith, Informs his Customers and others, that he still carries on the Nailing Business, at his Shop in
Windham, where may be had the best kind of Cut Nails, cut out of new iron, suitable for shingling, lathing, or saddler’s use. He has also for
sale Store and Earthen Ware. Cash, and most kinds of Produce, received in payment. October 8, 1793.

882. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: We the subscribers being appointed by the hon. court of probate, for the district of Pomfret, Commissioners on the estate of Mr. Caleb Lyon, late of Woodstock, deceased, represented insolvent, give notice, that six months from the ninth day of September
inst. is allowed the creditors to said estate, to exhibit and support their claims, and that we will attend said business at the dwelling-house of Capt. Benjamin Lyon, in Woodstock, on Tuesday the nineteenth day of November next, at nine o’clock in the morning, and all accounts must be properly attested, and none accepted after said six months. Daniel Larned, Theophilus Chandler, Comm’rs. September 19, 1793.

883. WH Sat Oct. 12, 1793: New-York, Sept. 28. Extract of a letter from Philadelphia to a Gentleman in Baltimore, dated the 20th instant. “You request I would endeavour to give you a particular account of the state of the city in general, and the rise and progress of the malignant fever new raging here. I believe it will be difficult precisely to determine its origin; but it is generally admitted to have been imported from
Cape-Francois, in a vessel which came to a wharf between Arch and Race-street, because the infection broke out in a house connected with
that vessel, ad it was afterwards traced to that vessel. The disorder overtook several families thereabouts. But most people apprehended it to
be the general fall-fever, which acted severely on those who had the influenza ; so that there was no material danger apprehended until the
death of Peter Ashton, in Vine-Street, who, after a short illness, died about one month past, after which the disorder was clearly discovered to
be the putrid or yellow fever, and each person became afraid of his neighbours, insomuch that if they became sick they were avoided, ad many
fled from the sick, leaving them in a destitute situation, perhaps shut up in a house, and the neighbours alarmed, merchants & ouse-keepers,
moved into the country, and fear was stamped on every countenance; infirmness possessed the hearts of the people; little business was done, except packing up; engaging waggons to move goods into the county, and searching for shelter for their families; many families set off without having a particular place to go to. Thus the country became alarmed, individuals died in the country; but I cannot learn that it spread there. The overseers duty became exceedingly heavy, and several of them were taken sick, others abandoned their posts, and the business bore very hard on the remaining few. Finding deaths increasing abundantly, they procured carpenters to make coarse coffins by the dozen. The malady still increasing in Water, Front, Race, and Vine streets, threatened desolation in those quarters. The overseers, moved by the distresses of the helpless, took possession of Bush-Hill mansion (it being empty) and erected a hospital, employed some physicians and
nurses, sent out some accommodations, and provided for interring the dead. …..I think about 1000 have died since the disorder first made its
appearance, but it cannot be ascertained with precision; and we think between 15 and 20,000 removed from their habitations. The doctors
suppose the disorder a little checked by the cool weather; how that is I know not.”

884. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Hartford, October 14. We are not ale to give our readers a particular account of the progress of the fever in
Philadelphia; probably a true state of facts is not known to the Philadelphians themselves, such is the terror and confusion that prevails there. From the most authentic intelligence however we learn, that instead of abating, the disorder is more widely spread and more fatal than it has heretofore been. We are happy to be well informed that the city is well supplied with provisions and that the distresses of the people are not increased by famine. Extract of a letter from Philadelphia, dated October 9. “The mortality still continues dreadful beyond conception in this devoted place; and should the present dry, warm weather continue a few weeks longer, from all appearance the city will be depopulated. With one exception I never was witness to a greater scene of distress than here exists. It is a common thing for the heartiest person to be taken and die in three or four days. The contagion at present confined to the atmosphere of the city, exists in the air we breathe. Upon an average one hundred die in a day at least; and people begin to shut themselves up in their houses, when taken sick, for fear of being sent to the hospital on Bush Hill. I know not when all this calamity will end.”

885. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Windham, October 19. Died.
At Boston, His Excellency John Hancock, Esq. aged 55; Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
At Philadelphia, Mrs. Phebe Adgate, formerly of Norwich.
In this town, of the throat-distemper, a son of Mr. Jacob Hovey, aged five years.

886. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Drugs & Medicine. Benjamin Dyer, has just imported from London, a large and general assortment of Genuine Drugs & Medicine. Which he is now selling on the lowest terms, at his store in Windham, of which the following are a part. Genuine Hooper’s Lockyer’s and Anderson’s Pills; Hill’s Balsam of Honey; Turlington’s Balsam of Life’ Bateman’s Drops; British Oil; Godfrey’s Cordial; Hungary Water; Harlem Oil; Huxham’s tinct. Of the bark; Stoughton’s Elixir; Daffy’s Elixir; Eaton’s Styptic, per bottle; Dr. Bateman’s Cordial Elixir; Francis’s Female Elixir; Essence Burgamot; Essence Lavender; Essence Lemons; Essence Peppermint; Oil Lavender; Oil Cloves; Oil Cinnamon; Giauber Salts; Aether Vitriol; Gum Camphor; Borax; Colombo Roots; Red Peruvian Bark; Second do. [ditto]; Pale do.; Rad. Quassia; Opium, Jalap.; Manna; Magnesia Alb.; Scria; Flour Sulphur; Flos. Zinc; Spunge; Hair Pencils; Tooth Brushes, forted; Pewter and Ivory Syringes, with Pipes; Oil Cloth; London, Birmingham, and Shell Lancets; Surgeon’s Pocket Instruments; Surgeon’s Needles, sorted.; Horse Phlemes, sorted; Oval smelling Bottles, sorted.; Pungent Smelling Bottles, sorted; Glass Ink-stands; Phials and Phial Corks, by the gross; Apothecaries Scales & Weights. Also, Ink-Powder and Cake-Ink, Wafers and Sealing-wax, Raisins,
Mace, Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmegs, Ginger, Alspice, Salep, Gold-Beaters’ Skins, English Glue, Durham Mustard, Rotten Stone, Spelter, ivory Black, Clothier’s Jacks, Roll Brimstone, genuine London Court Plaster, Pomatum, best Shaving Soap, Spirits Turpentine, Common Varnish, Rosin, Seed and Shell Lac, Saltpetre, Gold Litharge, Rose Pink, Carmine, King’s Yellow, Spruce yellow, Brown Pink, India Red, Flake White, Drop Lake, fine Prussian blue, white Vitriol, Vermillion, Stone Yellow, Umber, Red and White Lead, Spanish White. Dye Stuffs. Ground Madder, ground Camwood, Fustic, Redwood, Logwood, Copperas, Allum, Verdegrease, Blue Vitriol, Spirits Nitri Fortis, Gum Arabic, Oil Vitriol, Aquafortis, Argol, Cochineal, Crem. Tartar, Nutgalls, Annatto. Madeira, Malaga, Lisbon ad Teneriff Wines, Claret Wine in Bottles. October 16, 1793.

887. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Wanted Immediately, A journeyman, who is a good workman at the Boot and Shoe-making business; who will find steady employ and good encouragement, by applying to Elisha & John Gleason. Pomfret, October 14, 1793.

888. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Broke into the subscriber’s inclosure the fore part of last September, a black line back yearling Bull; no
artificial mark. The owner may have him again, paying cost. Benjamin Jacobs. Mansfield, October 11, 1793.

889. WH Sat Oct. 19, 1793: Broke into the inclosure of the subscriber the 28th September, three dark brown Mules. The owners are desired to pay charges, and take them away. Benjamin Fuller. Hampton, Sep. 28, 1793.

890. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Indian Country. Extract of a letter from a gentleman at New York, who was with the Commissioners at the late
proposed treaty with the hostile Indians, dated New York, October 4th, 1793, to his friend in Boston. “Captain Ford arrived here yesterday from Niagara, which place he left on the 13th ult. and came by the way of Oswego. He relates sundry circumstances, which may be novel to you, and therefore I communicate them. Before he left Niagara, Talbot, Brant, and Shehan, arrived there from the Indian country at the Miamis. They report to the Governor, that as soon as the Indians received the final message of the Commissioners, they dispatched a large party commissioned to seize us, with orders to cut off our noses, ears, &c. and to keep us prisoners until a peace could be obtained: These men arrived at Caldwell’s the morning after we sailed. I therefore congratulate your nose and ears as well as my own. He says that Shehan, (who is his brother in law) took the care of the Six Nations, in the absence of Col. Butler: and that at an early period of the private council, he was called upon by Mc.Kee to know his opinion in regard to the treaty. His reply was, that he and the Six Nations had come there for the purpose of peace, and should urge it all in their power. That in consequence of this, neither he nor Brant were once admitted to the Indian Councils; but were termed Yankies; Upon this, Shehan and Mc.Kee had a serious quarrel. The above three persons had reported to the Governor, that the Indians were urged on to war in secret, and that Mc.Kee and sundry traders were at the bottom of it. That the Governor was extremely provoked at the conduct of the Indians; very much regretted not seeing you on your return, and had publicly reprobated the conduct of Mc.Kee. Ford informs, that at the breaking up of the Indian Council, 3000 Indians set out to attack Wayne. This account is reported to the
Governor by the above three persons. Before the breaking up of the council, the Six Nations were called upon to join in the war against the
States; they said they must consult their nations upon the business; and a council was appointed to be held at Buffaloe-Creek, at which Mr.
Shehan was ordered to attend. The Governor and the Six Nations were decidedly for their remaining neuter. By him I also learn, that a large
party was sent off from the Western Country to attack the Gennesee country: That as soon as the Governor was informed of it, he sent
positive orders to forbid it; saying that as this was the route of intercourse he had with the States, he would not suffer it; and that he would withhold all supplies, presents, from any nation that should send warriors on the expedition. This stopped the business; and so my good
friend Chapin’s scalp was saved.”

891. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Augusta, (Georgia) Sept. 12. The following recent depredations evince how slender a reliance we have to place on the pacific disposition of the Creeks, and how unsafe our frontier people are in their lives and property, unless some speedy and effectual
measure is adopted for their protection. About the 27th or 28th of last month, a party of Indians entered the house of Mr. Cribbs, and another
of Mr. Hills, in Greene county, and stript them of every thing they could find. The same party stole ten horses out of that neighbourhood,
which was no sooner known, than Col. Melton and Capt. Fouche, with the latter’s light-horse, pursued them; but the waters being so very high, they returned without effecting any thing. Another party of four, on the evening of the 1st instant, penetrated as far as Capt. Stoke’s station, at the Long Bluff, in Washington county, and stole two horses belonging to his troop. Capt. Stokes immediately pursued the Indians and on the following day came up with them on the bank of the Oakmulgee. On coming in view of their camp, he ordered his men to fire; which was returned by the Indians, without doing any mischief. Capt. Stokes then ordered his men to charge, by which three of the savages were killed, one only escaped. The two stolen horses were retaken; and another horse with three rifles, one shot gun, and sundry articles found in their camp.

Sept. 14. A trail of between 30 and 40 Indians was discovered on the 5th inst. by one of the scouts within two miles of Wafford’s station.
Franklin county, leading towards the waters of Broad river. Capt. Williamson, with upwards of 40 of his troop, took the track as early as
possible after the discovery, and went in pursuit. It is to be hoped that we will have a good account of this party of Indians in a short

892. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Winchester, September 20. Extract of a letter from the Territory South of the Ohio, September 4. “Times here
were but a gloomy aspect. The frontier is daily harassed by the Indians. On the 18th of August, a party, consisting of about 300, killed Lieut.
James Tedford, of the United States troops, and a Mr. Jackson, as they were gathering corn in a field for their horses, near Henry’s station.
They have lately burnt many houses on Nine Mile, and destroyed a prodigious quantity of wheat, rye and corn. We hope Governor Blount, on
his return to this territory, will be invested with power to destroy these barbarous tribes.”
From the same, dated September 14. “On the 30th of August, some Indians killed one young woman and scalped another in Washington county; and on the 5th instant, a party of them wounded four persons, and scalped one, about nine miles from Green court-house; a house was also attacked by them, but they were forced to retreat by the owner thereof and one of his daughters, who fired several rounds, and wounded some of them. On the 16th, another party of savages killed a woman and child, on Nine Mile.”

893. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Philadelphia, October 17. We have the satisfaction of announcing to the public, that for some days past, the
malignant fever has very considerable abated. But since yesterday’s fall of rain, so visible an alteration has come within ___ observation, that
we feel a pleasing ___ to calm the anxiety of our friends, in ____ them that this day only three persons have been presented to the City Hall
for removal to the hospital: though it has been hitherto usual for thirty or upwards, to make daily application.

894. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Windham, October 26. Jehu Brainard, Esq. is appointed Sheriff of New-Haven County in the Room of Col. Fitch,

895. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: Windham, October 26. Peter Chappel, who was committed to the goal at New-London for murder, from whence he made his escape sometime since, was last week returned to said goal.

896. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: A pair of Saddle-Bags were picked up near the Island Bridge, in Windham, about 20 days since. The owner may hear of them by applying to the printer. October 23, 1793.

897. WH Sat Oct. 26, 1793: From the Federal Gazette. An Account of the Origin, Symptoms and Treatment of the Epidemic Fever, which now prevails in the city of Philadelphia, in a letter from Dr. Benjamin Rush, to Dr. John Rodgers, Physician in New-York. My Dear Friend. In compliance with your request, I sat down at a late hour, and after a busy day, to give you a short account of the origin, symptoms and treatment of the fever, which has prevailed with so much mortality in our city, for the last six weeks. I shall begin by observing, that I have satisfactory documents to prove that the disease was generated in our city. To suppose, because the yellow fever is an endemic of the West-Indies, and because it seldom occurs in North America, that it can exist among us only by importation, is as absurd as to suppose, that the hurricanes which are so common in the West-Indies, and which occur here only once in twenty or thirty years, are all imported from that country. The disease attacks in a variety of ways, according to the habit and predisposition of the patient, or the nature and force of the exciting cause. It sometimes comes on in the form of a regular quotidian or [testiau?]. Many are indisposed for two or three days with head-ach, and pains in the back, sides, or bones, without much perceptible fever. But in a majority, it attacks with chills, head-ach, sickness or vomiting and fevers, pains in the limbs or back. The pulse, in this state of the disease, since the tenth day of September, has generally been full and tense ; the tongue whitish and moist; the eyes red; the pupils dilated ; the urine high colored; the thirst great, and the skin hot and dry. These symptoms remit every day, or every other day, and from the tertain type, which is its original and natural form, a recovery or death, generally happens in acute cases on the 3d, 5th or 7th days. It attacks all ages. Even young children are not exempted from it, but it is most acute and most mortal in young persons, between fourteen and twenty-five. Before the 10th of September, I found strong purges of calomel and jalap, alone, given on the first day of the disease, sufficient to conquer in most cases. (Each purge consists of 10 grains calomel, and 15 of jalap. One should be given every 6 hours, until 4 or 5 large evacuations are procured from the bowels.) They brought away large quantities of green, dark colored, or black bile of a most foetid and acrid nature. The pulse, which in the warm weather, was weak and low, rose with every evacuation. The skin likewise which remained dry under the most powerful sudorifics became moist under the use of those active remedies. Since the 10th of September, I have found bleeding, in addition to the mercurial purges, to be necessary in nineteen cases out of twenty. The pulse; the appearance of the blood, the spontaneous hemorrhages, and the weather (exclusive of the stimulus of the contagion) all indicated the use of the lancet. At first I found the loss of ten or twelve ounces of blood sufficient to subdue the pulse, but I have been obliged, gradually, as the season advanced, to encrease the quantity to sixty, seventy and even eighty ounces and in most cases with the happiest effects. I have observed the most speedy convalescence, where the bleeding has been most profuse, and as a proof that it has not been carried to excess, I have observed in no one instance, the least inconvenience to succeed it. I have bled in three cases where I have seen incipient petechiae, and in each case, with success. I was warranted in this bold practice not only by the tension of the pulse, but by a precedent for it, which I recollected in the works of Dr. De Haen, of Vienna. I bleed not only in the exacerbations of the fever, but likewise in its remissions and intermissions, where I find a low, flow, but corded pulse. I have recovered two patients with this pulse, in whom it beat less than 50 strokes in a minute. On every day of the disease, after giving the mercurial medicine, I prescribe a purge. Castor oil, - salts, - cremor tartar, - sulphur, and clysters, answer in most cases, but in some, I have been obliged to have recourse to calomel and gamboge in moderate doses. (Each dose consists of two or three grains of gamboge, made into a pill with a little flour & common syrup. A dose should be given two or three times a day, so as to procure large evacuations from the bowels.) I was led to purge every day, not only by recollecting the advantages of that practice in the yellow fever of 1762, in carrying off the accumulated bile, but by observing the disease in all cases to attack a weak or previously disordered part of the body. The purging creates an artificial weak part, which by inviting a determination of the fluids to the bowels, prevents those effusions in the brain, stomach, bowls, liver, and lungs, which bring on death. I have in nearly every case for the three last weeks, rejected bark, wine and laudanum to the first state of the disorder even though the most perfect intermission of the fever took place. (The Bark has been recommended as a preventative of the fever. However proper it might have been during the warm weather, I am satisfied that it is not so now. So universally is the contagion diffused, thro’ every part of the City, that out of a great number of persons in apparent and good health, whose pulses I have examined, I have met with only two, in whom they were not fuller than natural. In two old persons in good health, between 70 and 80, the pulse beat between ninety and an hundred strokes in a minute. I have found this preternatural fullness and quickness in the pulses of black as well as of white people; also in a woman who had the yellow fever in 1762. This state of the pulse cannot be ascribed to fear, for that passion weakens it. The only preventatives that experience warrants, are a temperate diet; the loss of a little blood- and keeping the bowels gently open. To these should be added great caution in avoiding fatigue ; the hot sun and the night air.) Nor do I conceive those medicines to be necessary in the convalescent state of the disease. Mild and nourishing diet, restores the strength much sooner than the most powerful tonics. I have reason to believe that laudanum to be poison when given with an active corded pulse in this fever. The next articles to purging and bleeding in my materia medica, are cool air and cool drinks. I often direct the head to be bathed, and the hands and face to be washed with cold water. Toast and water, balm tea, lemonade, tamarind water, barley water, and apple water, are the common drinks of my patients. The less they eat in the first stage of the disorder, the better. As soon as the pulse is reduced, I indulge them in wine whey, bread, or roasted apples, or mush in milk, chicken, beef, mutton, or veal broth, coffee and tea with buttered toast, and weak chocolate ; I forbid the use of animal food, until they are able to walk about. Cleanliness is advised to every stage of the disorder, with gentle exercise, and country air to complete the cure. In those few cases where the disease comes on with typhoid or typhus symptoms, I recommend the common remedies for those states of fever. If sufficient bleeding and purging have been omitted in the beginning of the disorder, and haemorrhages, with petechiae, a low pulse and a black vomiting, have come on, little can be done. The ceremonies of bark, clysters and the cold bath, may be performed in such cases, but I have heard of no instance in which they have done any service. I think I have seen blisters afford relief in local determinations to the head, breast and stomach, after sufficient evacuations have been used. Where a troublesome vomiting does not yield to blood letting I know of no remedies equal to a tablespoonful of sweet milk given every half hour, or to weak camomile tea. Where a dull pain in the bowels attends with a full, or corded pulse, I have prescribed clysters of cold water with evident advantage. Where flatulency attends, I prescribe camomile tea, or weak brandy and water, provided the pulse be sufficiently reduced. By means of the remedies before mentioned, I think I was the unworthy instrument in the hands of kind providence, of recovering more than ninety-nine out of an hundred of my patients, before my late indisposition. A number died during the few days of my confinement, from the want of well-timed bleeding and purging. Since my recovery, the disease has became more violent and obstinate, and some have died under my care, from my inability from weakness, and occasional returns of my fever, to be early and punctual in my attendance, upon them; for a recovery often depends upon the application of the remedies, not only on a certain day, but frequently at a certain hour. The concentration of the contagion in every part of the city, moreover has encreased the difficulty of curing the disease, for it constantly counteracts the use of the remedies which are intended to abstract stimilus; thence we observe, (other circumstances being equal,) there is most mortality where there is most contagion. The delays in procuring bleeders, and the ignorance or neglect of purges added to some other circumstances to gloomy to be mentioned, have contributed very much of late to encrease the mortality of the disorder. But with punctual and skilful medical assistance, good nursing, and airy rooms. I am still of the opinion, that this disease is as much under the power of medicine as the meazles or influenza. The newspapers have informed you, how much the opinions and practice, I have delivered in this letter, have been opposed by many physicians of our city. They first called the prevailing epidemic, the jail fever. They might as well have called it the small pox. They have declared that we have two distinct fevers in town; the one a putrid yellow fever, and the other a common remittent. It would not have been more absurd, to have asserted, that we have two suns and two moons shining upon our globe. What makes this mistake the more inexcusable is with the present highly contagious epidemic, has not be observed as usual in the suburbs or in the neighbourhood of the city. But the mistakes of some of my brethren have not ended here. Where the disease has made its chief impression on the head, it has been called the internal dropsy of the brain. Where it has attacked the throat, as it has done in some mild cases, it has been called an angina maligon. Where it has attacked the sides it has been called a pleurisy, and in one person in whom it first affected the bowels, it was treated as a bilious cholic. The disorder in this case terminating in a black vomiting, and death on the third day. (One of these gentlemen urged in a consultation, as an objection to plentiful bleeding, that there were only ten pounds of blood in the human body.) The success of the new remedies has at last created such a clamour in their favour, that most of our physicians have been forced to adopt them. They bleed however as yet sparingly, & purge after the first day only with lenient physic. Some of them blend wine, bark and laudanum with them. They might as well throw water and oil at the same time upon fire in order to extinguish it. It was extremely unfortunate that the new remedies were ever connected with my name. I have no other merit, than that of having early adopted, and extended a mode of treating the disorder, which I had learned in the year 1762, from my first preceptor in medicine Dr. Redman, and which is strongly recommended by Hillary, Mosely, Mitchell, Kirby, and many other writers upon this fever. In my first address to the public I acknowledged that I received the first hints of the safety and efficacy of jalap and mercury in this disorder, in the military hospitals, in the year 1777, and from a description of a disease nearly related to ours, in an East-India publication. In the use of all my remedies, I have in this disease, depudiated names, and been governed only by the condition of the system. I am indebted to Dr. Sydenham, as well as to my own observations, for the decided manner in which I have rejected the idea of a common remittent in our city. I have been told, that by propagating this opinion, I terrify my patients. Perhaps I do, But I save them by their fears: for I excite in them at once a speedy application for help, and a faithful obedience to all my prescriptions. Universal truth, is universal interest, and falsehood and misery always go hand in hand. The opinion which has been published by some of our physicians, that we have now a mild and a malignant fever in our city, has led all those people, in whom the fever has come on in an insidious form, to neglect themselves for several days, under the idea, that they had nothing but a common fall fever, and from this deception, I believe hundreds have perished by the disorder. I cannot conclude this letter, without lamenting further, that several publications, from men who have never seen the disorder, or who had seen only a few cases of it, have contributed very much to distract the public mind; to lessen a confidence in mercurial purges and bleeding ; and to produce an indiscriminate use of general remedies without any respect to the state of the system, and thereby to add to the mortality of the disease. Adieu my dear friend. I shall only add, my prayers, that your city may be preserved from the calamities which now afflict ours, and that you may never know, from experience, the labours, the anxiety, the deep domestic distress, and the calamities which for six weeks past, have been the portion of Your sincere friend and Former preceptor in medicine, Benjamin Rush.

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