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Windham County Connecticut
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The Windham Herald [this seems to be the name that the paper was referred to, however the title of the papers always appeared as “The Phenix; or, Windham Herald.”]

Printed by John Byrne.

[Note. The original printing sometimes used the letter “f” as a substitute for “s”. I have typed the words as they would appear today.
I have transcribed the portions which I thought would be of interest to genealogists and historians, but have omitted some articles (usually due to length and nature of content) such as proclamations, proceedings of Congress, sermons, etc. Also, many of the pages were stained, creased and torn, and therefore, unfortunately, many of the articles were unreadable.]


March 12, 1791

1. WH Mar. 12, 1791: [pages missing]

2. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Salem, March 1. Mr. Morrill, of this town, butcher, was a few days since [resied?] and committed to jail in Boston, to be tried before the Circuit Court of the United States, in May next, for passing a Continental Security which had been altered from ‘14’ dollars to 400 dollars. The penalty for knowingly passing a counterfeited note of the U. States, is Death.

3. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Yesterday came on before the supreme judicial court, the trial of the Printer of the Herald, on the charge of publishing a Libel against John Gardiner, Esq. After a very fair and candid investigation of the charge, it was last evening committed to a respectable jury, who brought in their verdict Not Guilty. The hon. Court were in their scarlet robes; and a vast concourse of citizens attended the trial—which was the first for a libel ever had in this country.

4. WH Mar. 12, 1791: At the Supreme Judicial Court held here last Friday, Thomas Welsh and John Kelly, were tried on an indictment for robbery, committed on board a vessel lying at Mr. Hall’s wharf, and stealing from a Mr. Fontaine, a pocket-book containing money and other articles. After a lengthy trial the Jury returned their verdict—Guilty of a violent assault, with an intention to rob.

5. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Extract of a letter from Philadelphia, dated February, 1791. The Supreme Court of the United States opened here last week. The Judges did not all attend. The only action entered, was brought by a Foreigner, against the State of Maryland. The Writ was served upon the Governor, the Supreme Executive of the State, and upon the Attorney-General. Two months are given for the State to plead. Should this action be maintained, one great national question will be settled;--that is, that the several States have relinquished all their Sovereignties, and have become mere corporations, upon the establishment of the General Government: For a Sovereign State can never be sued, or coerced, by the authority of another government. Should this point be supported in favour of this cause against Maryland, each State in the Union, may be sued by the possessors of their public securities, and by all their creditors. As the execution will be against them as mere corporations, they will be issued against all the inhabitants generally; the Governors, and all other citizens will be alike liable. Such offices will not be covered; even the Constitutional privileges, the several States, against arresting Senators and representatives, while the Courts are sitting, will be done away

6. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Hartford, March 7. Last week Noah Barnes, and Francis Floro, were convicted of Burglary, before the Hon. Superior Court, and sentenced to Newgate, the former six and the latter for three years.

7. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Norwich, March 11. On Tuesday last Mr. ----- Beckwith, Fisherman, fell through the ice in the Cove near the Landing (while he was employed in his vocation) and was unfortunately drowned. He has left a wife and nine children, in very needy circumstances. He “That giveth to the poor, lendeth to the Lord.”

8. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Windham, March 12. By the last census, the inhabitants of the county of Windham amounted to 18,921. In 1774, when the towns of Coventry and Union were a part of this county, the number of its inhabitants were 28,178. In 1756, the whole number amounted to 20,014.

9. WH Mar. 12, 1791: The fourth day of October, is fixed for the next meeting of Congress. The House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts have passed a bill appointing Commissioners on the part of that Commonwealth, for ascertaining the boundary line between that Commonwealth and this state. And another bill, for the purpose of ascertaining the boundary line between that Commonwealth and the State of Rhode-Island.

10. WH Mar. 12, 1791: I would recommend, (says a correspondent in a late paper) the introduction of newspapers in schools—these being compiled of various matter, and always of something attaching to young minds, will not only lead them to read well, but, from the variety of their contents, to read each subject with a proper cadence and also enlighten them, in some degree, in the history of the world, and the manners of mankind.

11. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Books & Stationary to be sold by John Byrne, at the Printing-Office, in Windham. Large and common Bibles, Testaments; Webster’s and Dilworth’s Spelling; Entick’s Pocket Dictionary; Little Reader’s Assistant; Primers, Picture Books; Copperplate Copies; Pike’s Arithmetic; McDonald’s Arithmetic; American Youth; Schoolmaster’s Assistant; Scot’s Lessons; Aesop’s Fables; Clark’s Introduction to making Latin; Latin Accidence; Ofterwald’s Theology; Life of Gardiner; Life of Putnam; Occom’s Hymns; Emma Corbett; Father’s Legacy to his Daughters; History of the twelve Caesars; Adventures of Peregrin Pick; Fanny, or the Happy Repentance; New Entertaining Novelist; Connecticut Law Books; Green’s Registers, Almanacks; Account Books, Writing-paper; Bonnet-paper, Ink-powder, Cake-ink, Ink stands, wafers in small boxes, slates, &c. Book-Binding carried on at the Printing-Office.

12. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Wanted by the Subscriber, by the first of May next, Five Hundred yards of good yard-wide Tow-Cloth; for which pay will be made in goods. He has on hand a few Goods which he will sell very low for cash, on any kind of grain, and the least favours will be gratefully acknowledged by, Jona. Jennings. Windham, March 10, 1791.

13. WH Mar. 12, 1791: The Subscriber being determined to close his accounts, hereby requests all those indebted to him by book to settle the same soon, either by payment or by their notes of hand; those who neglect to comply with this reasonable request, must expect to be sued without further notice. Jedediah Elderkin. Windham, March 10, 1791.

14. WH Mar. 12, 1791: From the Columbian Magazine. Situation of the first and present Settlers in America, contrasted; in a letter from Richard Champion, Esq. All American colonies were founded upon similar institutions. It may probably be objected to me, that very few of the first settlers were successful; they were chiefly destroyed either by famine or disease, or by the arrows of the Indians, whose territories they usurped. The illustrious Penn, the first and most humane of lawgivers, is the only exception amidst the various settlements of the great continent of the western world. It is necessary in order to remove these objections, to inquire into the cause of this ill success.
The whole country was at that time a wilderness, the few inhabitants in it hostile, and the climate, particularly on the sea-coast (where the settlers were obliged to establish themselves) very indifferent. A variety of causes reduced them to the necessity of making this choice. Their possessions were narrow and circumscribed—the spot upon which they landed was their whole estate; for the title to which, they were indebted alone to the superiority of their arms. A proximity to the sea, from whence they came was therefore necessary to their safety, that they might be open to supplies from the mother country, without which they could not have expected long to subsist.
The event shewed the wisdom of this choice. It proved the only means by which the surviving settlers were preserved amidst the distress and disorder of their first establishment. Many perished. The distance from the mother country, and the civil commotions which reigned in it, soon after the first settlement of America, preventing general relief, some settlements were wholly ruined and broken up, the inhabitants dying of disease and want of food. Those who remained were indebted for their preservation to the partial supplies which they received, abating, in some degree, the daily and severe trials which these poor people endured, and which they bore with exemplary patience and resignation. This spirit of perseverance, joined to the activity and industry which the first settlers possessed, and which their descendants have inherited from them, have been the cause of their great and wonderful increase.
Thus was America situated in the time of the first settlers of that country. The state in which emigrants will now find it, forms a very strong contrast. New-England, and the sea coasts of all the other states, are well settled, and full of people. Even the back countries of the middle and fourteen states are filled with great and profitable farms, extending in many parts, to the mountains, several hundred miles from the sea. In the midst of these countries are large and populous towns. On the coasts are great and powerful cities.
Instead, therefore, of labouring under disease and want, from the mother country; instead of being under the necessity of forming establishments in the midst of enemies, the present emigrants will now settle in the midst of friends, speaking their own language, and following their own customs—in the midst of towns, where in case of want, they may purchase all the necessary instruments for planting in a plentiful country, where they will find food in abundance—in a temperate climate, where the garments they want may be procured with ease and cheerfulness.
They also receive another great advantage by the assistance of the farmers of the country, in the forming of their settlements. These, from the natural desire of augmenting the number of their neighbours, are stimulated to render every facility in their power to new comers. The whole country has been thus formed out of the wilderness. Settlers have assisted each other in clearing those fertile regions, till they have at length reached the mountains, from whence there is now either a fleet of boats on the water, or a string of waggons on the road, loaded with the fruits of their labours. These they carry for sale to sea ports. As the country increases in inhabitants, the farms increase in value. The encouragment, therefore, which they afford to new settlers by their assistance, is rewarded by the benefits which their estates derive from the increase of people.

15. WH Mar. 12, 1791: Rags. Cash given for clean cotton and linen rags, at the Printing-Office.

16. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: Kingston, (Jamaica) December 25. Infomration is received by the Rover, that the Mosquito Indians, after having treated Col. Hudson with every indignity, and reluctantly spared his life through the intercessions of his lady, finally drove him from his possessions, and compelled the unhappy couple with their family to quit the settlement in a small canoe.

17. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: Georgetown, February 26. On Tuesday the [feft?] inst. died near North mountain, Frederick county, -----Z__ [Zell?] aged nineteen years. His death was occasioned by a slight cut in one of his [feet?], with an axe. From the time of his receiving the wound, until he expired, no method could be devised to stop the bleeding—if the wound was bound up, the blood gushed out at his mouth or nostrils. Five brothers to the above person have bled to death at different periods, from the following simple accidents: One received a prick with a thorn—another a scratch with a comb—a third, a prick with a needle, a fourth, bruised his cheek against a stove—and the fifth received a cut in one of his thumbs. The father of the above persons has had two wives, and by each of them, several children; those, who died in this singular manner, were all by the first wife. It should be noted that when they arrived at a certain age, several black spots were discernable upon their bodies. However marvelous this account may appear, our readers may rely on its authenticity.

18. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: The Hon. William S. Johnson, Senator of the United States from this State, has resigned his Seat in the Senate.

19. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: By his Excellency, Samuel Huntington, Esquire, Governor and Commander in Chief of the State of Connecticut. A Proclamation. Through the various changing seasons and revolutions which are constantly succeeding in the course of events, it becomes a People, publickly to acknowledge the over-ruling hand of Divine Providence, and their dependence upon the Supreme Being, as their Creator and merciful Preserver; to seek his protection and gracious influence and guidance in the paths of Religion and Virtue, and the way that conducts to everlasting felicity; and to implore the pardon of all their offences. I have therefore thought fit by and with the advice of the council, to appoint, and do hereby appoint Thursday the Thirty-first Day of March instant, to be observed as a day of Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer, throughout this state; earnestly exhorting Ministers and People of all denominations, to assemble for religious worship, and with becoming humility and sincere repentance to supplicate the pardon of our manifold offences and iniquities…….[a long religious sermon]…..And all servile labour is forbidden on said Day. Done at the Council-Chamber in Hartford, the nineth Day of March, in the Fifteenth Year of the Independence of the United States of America, Annoque Domini 1791. Samuel Huntington. By his Excellency’s command, George Wyllys, Sec’ry.

20. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: To be Sold. A number of valuable Lots of Land, in the town of Chelsea, in Vermont, for neat Cattle, or at a reasonable credit on good security. Also, a right of Land near Col. Joseph Durkee’s, in Stockbridge, in said state, for which early payment may be made. Henry Huntington. Norwich, 18th March, 1791

21. WH Sat. Mar. 19, 1791: Those persons in the county of Windham, who are indebted to the subscriber for Escise, and whose obligations are in his hands, are requested to make immediate payment. Eben’r Gray. Windham, March 18, 1791.

22. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Paris, Dec. 23. Sunday the following horrid note was found by the Queen of France under her cover: “At the first shot your brother shall fire against the French patriots, your head shall be sent to him!!”

23. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Charleston, February 9. The two Negroes who murdered Mr. Thomas Riddal, overseer to Mr. Manigault, on the first of November last, near Goose creek-bridge, have been taken, and were tried on Monday last by two magistrates and five freeholders at Goose-creek, who found them guilty, and they are to be burnt this day at 10 o’clock, at the place where the murder was committed. One of the Negroes is the property of Mrs. Frierson, of Santee; the other of Mr. Monk.

24. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Carlisle, Feb. 23. We are informed from good authority, that a party of 70 Indians lately presented themselves before fort ----- (a small stockade not far from Gen. Harmar’s head-quarters) garrisoned by 30 regulars and about 20 inhabitants of the vicinity, under the command of lieut. Kingibury [mean Kingsbury?]. The Indians had previously taken a Mr. Hunt prisoner, with two or three others whom they hoisted on their shoulders before the fort, directing them to inform the commanding officer that their party consisted of 300, and demanded a surrender of the garrison – the lieutenant answered, that if they were 300 devils he would not surrender, and immediately fired on the Indians; twelve of whom were killed, the remained, after having quartered Mr. Hunt in view of the fort, made a rapid retreat. –None of the garrison were either killed or wounded.

25. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Elizabeth-town, March 9. Sunday last was apprehended, and committed to the gaol of this country, Dr. Freeman, said to be partisan of those certificate forgers, who, for some time have played off their villany, on unsuspecting individuals, with too much success.

26. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: New-London, March 14. Extract of a letter from Newport, (R.I.) March 21. “On Thursday last, Colonel George Irish was apprehended and committed to our goal [sic, mean gaol?] on a warrant charging him with counterfeiting Public Securities, and other high crimes and misdemeanors; and event long expected.—‘Tis generally tho’t he would have left the place by this time, had he not been taken the day he was. The goal [sic] is full of the fort of gentry—among them Justice George Peckham. There has been a most astonishing scene of villainy carried on from one end of the Continent to the other.”

27. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Died. Mr. Gibson Bingham, of this town, aged 55. A good member of society, and an honest man.

28. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Recent Anecdote. A Tradesman in this town, having occasion to boil a number of cattle’s feet, threw the bones at the back of the courthouse—A Lawyer at court enquiring what bones they were, a by-stander observed that he though they were clients’ bones, as they appeared to be well pick’d.

29. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Peter Webb, has for sale English and West-India Goods, as usual, at the cheapest rate. Bar-Iron, by the hundred or less quantity. Plow-share molds. A few setts of the largest size Cart-boxes. Wool-cards, by the dozen or single pair.—For which articles—Cash, Pork, Beef, Grain, Sheep’s Wool, Flax, brown and whiten’d Tow-cloth, will be taken in pay. Also, wanted a large quantity of Hayfeed, and three hundred yards of chek’d linen Shirting; for which good pay will be made. Windham, March 24, 1791.

30. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: Garden Peas & Seeds just received, and for sale by William Leffingwell, in Norwich. Mar. 26, 1791

31. WH Sat. Mar. 26, 1791: At the late procession of the Lord Mayer, the Cherokee Chiefs now in London, were among the number of spectators. They viewed every thing with utmost sang froid, until the Lord Mayor’s coach appeared. It immediately occurred to them that the person in it was a warrior on his return from war, and that the ceremony was in honor of some great victory he had gained. Applying through their interpreter, to a gentleman standing near them, for a particular information they were told, that their conjecture was right; that the person in the coach, was the chief warrior of the nation, just returned from a campaign against the Spaniards, whom he had totally subdued, killing numbers of them himself, and the wig he then wore was composed of scalps taken with his own hand. The Chief calculating from the enormous size of his Lordship’s wig, the number of Spaniards that must have fallen by his arm, were struck with admiration at his prodigious valour, and obeying the fresh impulse they felt, drew their tomahawks, brandished them over their heads and advancing saluted the warrior in the coach with the war-whoop. The astonished Lord Mayor not comprehending the meaning of this manouvre, would have retreated by the opposite door, but in his hurry, he turned the latch the wrong way; the Cherokees continued to whoop, and advancing rapidly were now within arms length of the coach. Impelled by necessity, his Lordship determined to make his escape by the window, and would have effected it that way, but for his supposed trophy. The toupee and a few of the upper curls appeared on the outside of the coach glittering with the splinters of the window glass, which were sticking in them; the main body of the wig however remained in the breach, notwithstanding all his Lordship’s efforts. The delay occasioned by this incident, gave the interpreter, who hastened to the side of the coach where his Lordship was, in order to explain the matter to him, time to arrive. His Lordship no sooner saw him, than taking him for a Cherokee who meant to cut off his retreat, he suddenly withdrew himself into the coach, his wig suspended by the fragments of the window. The mistake being explained, and his Lordship at length, though not without great difficulty, convinced that the supposed attack, was meant as a compliment, he shook hands with the Cherokee Chiefs and adjusting the Spanish scalps, proceeded toward Westminster-Hall, where he arrived without further accident.


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